The earliest church was in Istanbul during the reign of Emperor Constantine basilica built in the form, with a wooden roof. It was then the city's cathedral, and entitled Megala Ekklesia. Hagia Sophia - From the fifth century it was known as the Church of Divine Wisdom. The original church was burned, said during an uprising on 20 June, 404 was to have been, during the reign of Theodosius II rebuilt and again on 10 October, opens 415th The second church was destroyed by fire during the Nika revolt in 532 and was completely suppressed with the support of the Empress Theodora, wife of Justinian after the revolt was been restored.
The emperor commissioned the architect Anthemios of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus, to rebuild it, and according to the report of the Byzantine historian Procopius, the Emperor ordered the building of great stature and glory, using his imperial authority to ensure that nothing in the absence of building it. Eight columns of red porphyry were brought from the Temple of Diana at Ephesus. Other balls were obtained from classical sites and some of the finest marble quarries of the Byzantine world. Maurer one thousand and ten thousand apprentices worked in construction with a view to ending it as soon as possible. The work began in 532 AD, was completed in five years, 11 months and 10 days, and the church was on 27 December, dedicated to 537 of Emperor Justinian.
The large pillars in the underground tanks on the site were, to some extent a measure against earthquake damage, but not prevent this monumental building from suffering some damage from earthquakes in 533, 557 and 559th We learn that it was in 562 of the architect Isidore, the nephew of former architect with the same name, which restored the previously depressed dome raised by some 6.25 m Further support for the main pillar was provided by buttresses.
In the 9th Century, during the reign of Emperor Theophilos III Mikhael and the bronze doors were installed. In 869 and 889, the church was damaged by an earthquake and was at after extensive repair work 13 May, reopened 994th Mosaics were taken during the reign of Emperor Basil II.
During the invasion of the Latin in 1204, was the Hagia Sophia was attacked and robbed of its most beautiful ornaments, including doors, which were mistakenly believed to be of gold. The building was heavily damaged in the invasion. Four large buttresses were added to the building in 1317, but later found extensive damage in the earthquake of 1346, are once again restored in 1354 by architect G. Prella. Mehmet the Conqueror had the church restored again after the conquest of Istanbul, and converted it into a mosque. Among the many renovations and additions to this, the largest church in the Byzantine era, one of the biggest shock was the addition of walls on the north and south facades in 1317 by Andronikos II
The four minarets, one was on each corner of the building at various times during the Ottoman period, the southeastern minaret to the reign of Mehmed II, the northeast minaret of Bayezid II and the two minarets on the west facade of the period has Selim II. The last restoration, carried out during the Ottoman period, the southeast minaret to the reign of Mehmed II, the northeast minaret of Bayezid II and the two minarets at the western facade of the period of Selim II. The last restoration, is performed during the Ottoman period to the reign of Abdülmecid. The church was converted into a museum in the last Republican period, by order of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, and back to 1 Opened in February 1935. The building covers an area of 100 x 70 m., and the plan consists of a wide central nave of two smaller ships, an apse, an inner and outer narthex and a central dome up to 55.6 m. flanked in height. performed by restoration at different times, this dome is not quite round, but has gradually elliptical.
Some of the more important mosaics are as follows: The input of the main entrance to the inner narthex, you can see on the portal, the figure of the Madonna holding the Infant Jesus of Constantine the Great, flanked on its right, presents a model of the city of Constantinople to her and on her left, presented the Emperor Justinian, a model of the church. This is from the last quarter of the 10th Century and the reign of Emperor Basil II. The vaulted portico of the inner narthex is decorated with gold mosaics of Justinian time. These are the original non-figurative mosaics of Hagia Sophia, the release of non-figurative nature, from damage during the period of iconoclasm. A mosaic depicting Christ on a semi-circular towers encrusted throne, holding a book that transcends the Emperor's Gate, on the southwest facade of the church. The medallion on the right side of this contains a bust of the Madonna, and on the left side, a bust of Gabriel.
The figure raises the BC is regarded as the Emperor Leo, and the mosaic is thought to the 10th -Century dome of the apse date contains a mosaic of the enthroned Madonna holding the infant Jesus, the 9th Century. It is believed to be the earliest figurative mosaics on the post-storm pictures in the church. On the right side of the drum is the white-robed figure of Gabriel, and on the left, now much damaged figure of the Archangel Michael. Portraits of saints, when the semicircular arched niche decorated below the northern gable, have survived only three of these. On the west wall, contained in the niches are portraits of the patriarchs of the Orthodox Church, Patriarch of Istanbul and St. Ignatius Ioannes Krysostomos in the first and central niche, and the figure of Saint Ignatius Theophoros, Patriarch of Antakya (Antioch) in the fifth slot. These figures are dressed in coats cruciform motifs contribute to the collar and skirt, and holding the Bible in their hands. The names of the characters are written next to them in Greek. These mosaics are from the end of the 9th Century to the early 10th Century. The four pedantries the dome are decorated with figures of cherubim and seraphim. Who are the originals on the east side of the church, while Fossati restored Western figures in fresco in 1847. Access to the galleries of the church remains on a paved ramp. The gallery with green columns used directly opposite the vestibule by the Empress and her followers during the ceremonies was established. Entering the southern gallery passes from here through a pseudo-marble wood door, now called the gate of heaven and hell.
Through this door one enters the room set aside for the meeting of the Consuls, with the Deisis mosaic-decorated one of the most famous mosaics in the world. It shows Christ flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist. This highly expressive mosaic dates from the 12th Century. to find in the gallery in the southeast of the church is the Comnenos mosaic in which the enthroned Madonna and Child enthroned on are also being accompanied by the Emperor Ioannes Comnenos II holds a bag of money and on the right side of the Empress Irene left a Hungarian princess .
A monogram she describes as the Mother of God, while the names of the other characters are written beside them in the Greek overcomes the figure of the Madonna. In one corner, you can also see the mosaic of the "sons of the emperor Inane (John) Comnenos II, and his co-ruler Alexius Comnenos. The latter is shown in a frontal pose, in elaborate dress and crown, and holds a scepter in his raised right hand. On the north wall of the Imperial Hall, who is in the southern gallery the Zoe mosaics are found.
The Empress is on the right side of the enthroned Christ with her third husband, the Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos to his left. The mosaic dates from the 11th Century AD The mosaic of Alexander can be seen at the southwestern end of the central hall on the north gallery.
Alexander, the third son of Basil I, the 912th for 13 months governed, is shown standing, facing forward, dressed in elaborate ceremonial robes and crown. In his left hand he holds a ball in his right hand and a bag. His name and titles are inscribed in two medallions on both sides of his head. Dating to the 10th Century AD, this mosaic in reasonably good condition. After having this extremely important mosaics, we will continue our tour through the St. Sophia Church, except the site where you can the monumental fountain of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmut I see built have been completed